Very often Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas or saMkhya are seen as 'distinct' literatures that developed at different points of time. They are also interpreted as different philosophies.
In my understanding it is not true. They are all part of the same thoughts flowing across.
Before I proceed with saMkhya kArika, few more words on Energy as seen in Puranic texts from what we understood in saMkhya context.
Universe evolution from Energy perspective
Radiation dominated era
At first the Hiranya-garbha, the uterus of four dimensional spacetime manifested.
Then the Hiranya-garbha expanded to Brahma, the expanded spacetime, during cosmic inflation. On this Brahma, the Rudras or force-fields manifested.
Shiva, the vacuum energy manifested in these force-fields, resulting in particles that traveled in the speed of light. Universe was filled with radiation as particles of force-fields traveled in the speed of light.
In this Universe, Shiva, the energy is the sthula (gross) and hence masculine. Energy (Shiva) is always characterized by Momentum (Shakti). Hence Shiva is Ardha-nareeswara. Since momentum is the 'sukSma' or property of energy it is feminine and called shakti.
The energetic particles that were traveling at speed of light (Radiation) at this point of time in universe are the Adi-Shakti, the momentum at the beginning. They are also the parA-shakti, because this momentum is far off/away from the momentum of matter particles that arise in the later point of time in the Universe.
Thus one can say it was the time of Adi-Shakti, parA-shakti or Radiation dominated era (in Standard model parlance).
Matter dominated era
Mass from Higgs
Then, in standard model parlance, the Electro-weak symmetry breaking occured and Higgs field acquired an expectation value. The Higgs field impedes the motion of energetic particles, slowing them down and gives a perception of 'mass' to these particles. Thus mass manifests in particles depending on their interaction with Higgs field.
Vishnu is the 'mass' when perceived as gross or sthula form. Gross or Sthula form is masculine. Since 'mass' is actually only a perception of Higgs field impeding particles movement, it is the 'mAya' (not real). The mAyA perception is sukshma or subtle and hence depicted as feminine.
The Universe before Electroweak symmetry breaking is North and after EWSB is 'South'. South is 'dakSa'.
Post EWSB, most of energy gets locked up in matter particles that have 'mass' (impeded by Higgs field). They become the 'subtle' or 'sukshma' and hence feminine. This subtle energy that resides in matter with mass, in south of Universe is called 'dAksAyani', daughter of the South.
Before EWSB energetic particles of quarks and electrons were moving at speed of light all over the universe. Post EWSB, Higgs field acquired an 'expectation value' and the particles started interacting with it. This interaction is bit like anchoring of ships. Depending on the anchoring level (interaction level) the speeds of particles get reduced.
Mass from binding energy
Along with it they also start 'docking' to a landing area, which combines many of these particles to form complex forms of matter. This docking or landing area is the 'Binding energy'. The binding energies combine many particles and evolve complex forms of matter.
Most of the mass of the Universe does not come from interaction with Higgs field. It actually comes from this landing area or docking area which combines matter. This docking /landing area are the various Binding energies of the Universe from hadronic binding, nuclear binding, atomic binding etc.
Docking/landing area is called 'Uma' in sanskrit. Hence binding energies are called 'umA'.
Thus 'Binding energies' are the 'knots', 'joints' and 'bindings'. The hadronic binding, nuclear binding, atomic binding, molecular binding etc are these binding energies in which particles dock and evolve. Parvan means 'Knot' or a 'Joint'. Parvata are those that are 'knotted' or 'jointed' (like the hill ranges). Energies in these 'knots' or 'joints' is called the 'Binding Energy'. This Binding energies are called pArvati.
This pArvati, the binding energies of matter creates newer forms of matter. Hence she is called jagad-Amba, jagat-mAta etc.
Since the binding energy is the 'cause' of every matter form in Universe, this energy is called the bhavAni.
Aindri, are the binding energies of Indra (baryons), the baryonic binding energy (protons). Hence pArvati is also known as Aindri.
The nuclear binding energy is born in the mountains of nucleus in atoms. Hence she is the giri-jA, shaila-putri etc.
The new matter forms caused by binding energies represents newer information content of matter. This information content is the entropy or Sarasvati. Hence internal energy of matter is called 'sarasvatyai'.
The binding energy is the one that fills up the particles and causes the most mass of the particles. This binding energy is the landing area for quarks to combine and become hadrons. Hence called Uma. 'Uma' means landing area.
The binding energy pArvati, creates the 'self' or property of existing independently. For eg. Quarks become hadrons, hadrons become nucleons, nucleus becomes atoms, elements and compounds and more complex matter forms due to various binding energies contributing to become 'internal energy'. This internal energy is Aham-kAra, the one that makes 'independently' existing particles, particles with their own self.
This binding energy or internal energy exists from the beginning in the matter. Hence called 'Aadya'.
This internal energy is not measurable. Hence it is Ameya. But changes in it can be measured.
This internal energy in the matter rules over the matter interactions. Hence called 'Aarya'.
This internal energy in the matter is not perceptible. Hence called 'Abhavya'.
AgnijwAla is the 'flame of the Agni'. Agni is the transfer of energy. jwAla is the energy that is transferred. pArvati is Agni-jwAla because she is the energy that is transferred.
The 'internal energy' is the greatest property of matter that heralds the dawn (diva). Hence it is mahA-devi.
Since the internal energy is part binding energy (pArvati), part kinetic energy (mahA-lakshmi) and causer of entropy (sarasvati), it is the vAk devi.
This energy that is acquired by matter with mass due to its position or other factors is called potential energy. Since Vishnu represents the property of mass, this potential energy that exists along with mass is called Vaishnavi, Vishnu Sodayi (Sister of Vishnu).
If pArvati, Uma are the binding energy or the potential energy, then durgA is the Kinetic energy, which cannot be crossed over (dur-gA).
Kinetic energy manifests as energy that causes the motion in all matter forms. Brahma (spacetime), Vishnu (mass) and Shiva (Energy) together create this Kinetic energy, the durgA. This kinetic energy of matter forms created by the trinity is called dur-gA. durgA means that cannot be crossed over.
This dur-gA, the Kinetic energy is the most powerful form of energy in all the matter forms. Hence it is said to ride the 'siMha' the most powerful beast in a jungle (lion or tiger).
The Kinetic energy of matter forms manifest in various ways, just as the potential energy of matter forms manifest in various ways.
kAma is the excitation of particles. This kAma causes the motion of particles in physical space. The energy of this excitation is the Kinetic energy. Since the 'eye' of the excitation is the Kinetic energy, the Kinetic energy in this form is called the 'kAma-akSi'. This is one of the several manifestations of Kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy of matter forms also leads to radiation of energy. The radiation of energy across all visible spectrum is white. This radiated visible white light is called 'Gauri'. Gauri is white. This is one of the several manifestations of Kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy of particles manifest as temperature. Temperature is nothing but average kinetic energy of matter particles. Of the eight properties of matter (eight lakshmis), mahA-lakshmi is the temperature of object. Hence dur-gA is also called mahA-lakshmyai.
This kinetic energy arises from conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. This conversion is a Rishi or symmetry breaking event. This Rishi is called kAtya-ayana. Since Kinetic energy manifests from conversion of potential energy, it is also called kAtya-ayani.
Since this energy widens the matter forms more and more, she is called 'vizAla akSi', the widening one.
This kinetic energy causes fear and hence called kAla-bhairavi. But since the radiated energy (Gauri) removes all the fear, she is also the bhaya-nAsinyai.
Since this kinetic energy exists as a property and alone in the matter with mass, it is the Brahmacharini.
Since this potential energy is at 'rest', it is the 'rAmAyai'. Since this potential is the one 'at home', it is the 'ramAyai'. ramA (at home) thus indicates wife or 'dear one' at home.
Since this potential energy exists in every matter, it is the 'paramAyai'
Since this potential energy exists all alone as a representative or messenger of Shiva, the vacuum or ultimate energy, she is called the Shiva dhutyai.
Since this energy is property of the force-fields (rudra), it is the 'Raudri'.
Ashta-Lakshmi - The eight lakshmi
Post EWSB, the particles with mass are the 'sthula'/gross and masculine. Energy in it becomes 'sukshma'/subtle and feminine. The energy in it is Uma/pArvati/durga the consorts of Shiva, the vacuum energy with various names.
What is Lakshmi then..? Lakshmi is the property of matter with mass.
Lakshmi are the properties of matter with mass. There are eight properties of matter with mass. They are
1. mahA lakshmi - Temperature - which is the average kinetic energy of particles of matter
2. gaja lakshmi - Mass
3. vidhya lakshmi - Entropy/Information (knowledge)
4. vijaya lakshmi - Velocity (refusing to be stopped)
5. veera lakshmi - Pressure (ability to bear pressure)
6. santana lakshmi - Volume (ability to expand)
7. dhana lakshmi - Carrying Energy
8. anna lakshmi - Ability to react with other physically and chemically for increasing energy
Lakshmi are also the eight properties of biological beings.
1. mahA lakshmi - Consciousness
2. gaja lakshmi - Self-control and rulership
3. vidhya lakshmi - knowledge
4. vijaya lakshmi - Refusing to be stopped
5. veera lakshmi - Truth in our expression
6. santana lakshmi - Ability to procreate/expand
7. dhana lakshmi - Having lot of energy
8. anna lakshmi - Expressions of Universe that become food providing energy
1. Sthula is masculine, Sukshma is feminine