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Aditya Hrdayam Again Part 31 - Mitra-Varuna Bonding


While the true knowledge of the Vedic scriptures seem to have been lost, the core or essence of it were well understood in the past, compared to the present.  In particular the essence of the roles of various forces or devas and how they interplay were well understood and known.
Over a period even that understanding of that essence got lost. Though I do not want to put a date around these, with rise of Jainism and Buddhism, which came up based on the research of the ‘Self’, the true understanding of the devas was lost.  Probably, the vedic dharma became more ‘religionized’ than ever before.
For eg., the Vedic dharma has always shown ‘BrAhman’ which means expansion or evolution as the goal and vehicle of the ‘Self’.  This meant we need to keep evolving in our knowledge. But Jainism, Buddhism brought in ‘Nirvana’  as the Goal of life. Sankara brought in ‘Moksha’ as an equivalent.
These influences, though they changed the characteristics of the dharma, did not change the understanding of the essence of the vedic texts.

Varuna hosts the Mitra

An example is the understanding of Mitra-varuna.
Mitra-Varuna indicates a 'bonding'. Mitra and Varuna are two different Adityas. But they get bonded together at some point of time as Mitra-Varuna.

A meson or baryon are a combination of Valence Quarks surrounded by 'Sea Quarks'. Sea quarks are quark-antiquark pairs that arise and merge back in a 'sea' of strong force that surrounds the Valence Quarks. Valence quarks determine the type of meson or baryon.

The Sea-quarks are the 'Varuna', the ocean that surrounds the Valence Quarks.
The Valence quarks are the 'Mitra', the quarks that give the identity to a meson or baryon.

The Satapatha Brahmana of Shukla Yajur veda tried to understand the bonding between Mitra-Varuna by putting up an anology for the bonding.
Satapatha Brahamana says “Mitra and Varuna, forsooth, are his intelligence and will; and as such belonging to his self: whenever he desires anything in his mind, as 'Would that this were mine! I might do this!' that is intelligence; and whenever that is accomplished, that is will. Now intelligence indeed is Mitra, and will is Varuna; and Mitra is the priesthood, and Varuna the nobility; and the priesthood is the conceiver, and the noble is the doer.”
Mitra (the valence Quarks) is the Conceiver. It is the Intelligence that proposes to do. It is what determines what the meson or baryon is.  It is the priesthood. Varuna (the sea quarks) is the doer. It is the will that is finally accomplished and seen. It is the nobility.
Satapatha Brahmana goes on to say “Varuna , the nobility, then called upon Mitra, the priesthood, saying, 'Turn thou unto me that we may unite: I will place thee foremost, sped by thee, I will do deeds!'--'So be it!' So the two united; and therefrom resulted that graha to Mitra and Varuna”
That is the Varuna (the sea quarks) calls on the Mitra (Valence Quarks) to come unto Varuna.  With you, I will do the deeds says Varuna (Sea quarks) to Mitra (valence quarks). Hence Mitra (Valence quarks) comes into Varuna (sea quarks).

‘Graha’ means seizure or capture. Thus Mitra (valence quarks) was captured or siezed by Varuna (sea quarks) inside him.

Mitra the valence quark gives the 'identity' of every meson or baryon. But it is like the intelligence. It needs the Will to be expressed out. The will is the Varuna the sea quarks which surround the valence quarks and bring out that identity. Varuna, the sea quarks on its own does not have any meaning or identity. Mitra the valence quark has a meaning but no functionality is possible for it.
Thus Sea quarks (Varuna) surround the Valence Quarks (Mitra), bond and become 'Mitra-Varuna' the different types of mesons and baryons.

The Mitra-Varuna Bonding

Any bonding between two entities can be said to be a bonding of Mitra-Varuna if one of them (like varuna, the sea quarks) surrounds the other (like mitra the valence quarks) and mask it completely such that we can’t distinguish between the two.
Intelligence and Will cannot be distinguished explicitly.
Nobility (Rulership) and Priesthood (Guidane) cannot be distinguished.
In the Chemical world, electro-plating is an example of Mitra-Varuna bonding.  A metal gets coated on another object. The coated object is totally hidden and is not seen. What is seen the metal that is getting coated.

Electroplating in ancient times

Electroplating by definition requires electricity. But there are also methods by which electroplating is done without electricity.
Electroplating is the process of plating one metal onto another by hydrolysis, most commonly for decorative purposes or to prevent corrosion of a metal. There are also specific types of electroplating such as copper plating, silver plating, and chromium plating. Electroplating allows manufacturers to use inexpensive metals such as steel or zinc for the majority of the product and then apply different metals on the outside to account for appearance, protection, and other properties desired for the product. The surface can be a metal or even plastic.
The process of electroplating uses an electrolytic cell, which consists of putting a negative charge on the metal and dipping it into a solution that contains metal salt (electrolytes) which contain positively charged metal ions. Then, due to the negative and positive charges, the two metals are attracted to each other. The positive and negative charges are created using a battery.
But then there are also processes which almost do the same without electricity, but which takes a longer time to happen.
The link here describes such a process.  This uses copper sulphate and vinegar.
Another inexpensive way to Copper-plate without electricity is here. This uses Copper sulphate.
An almost similar process is described in this sloka.
Sansthapya Mrinmaya Patre Tamrapatram Su saMkritam
Chhadye chhikhi griven Chardrarbhih Kashthpamsubhih
Dastaloshto Nidhatavyah Parda chhaditaSTah
Sanyogajjayte Tejo Mitravarunsangyitam
Anen Jal bhagosti Prano Daneshu Vayushu
Evam Shatanam Kumbhanam sanyog karya kritsmrita

Agastya Samhita - Equivalent of Baghdad Battery..?

I happened to see this sloka on internet blogs. This sloka is said to have been retrieved from texts that were supposed to have been documented in 1350. They were known as Agastya Samhita (collections of Agastya).
More about how it is interpreted currently
But when I read the sloka I did not get any inkling of it being an equivalent of Baghdad Battery or any electrolyte cell. I understand it as an copper electroplating process without electricity as described in the Home Model Video.

Electroplating copper without electricity

Sansthapya Mrinmaya Patre Tamrapatram Su saMkritam
Chhadye chhikhi griven Chardrarbhih Kashthpamsubhih
Dastaloshto Nidhatavyah Parada chhaditaSTah
Sanyogajjayte Tejo Mitravarunsangyitam
Anen Jal bhagosti Prano Daneshu Vayushu
Evam Shatanam Kumbhanam sanyog karya kritsmrita

SaMsthapya (By establishing) Mrinmaya patre (A Clay Vessel) Tamrapatram (Vessel of Copper) Su saMkritam (arranged well)
Place or Establish a Copper Vessel in a Clay Vessel. Arrange it well.
Chhadye (Covered) zikhi griven (Neck of tuft headed, Neck of peacock, Bluish green Copper sulphate) Char (flowing down) drarbhih (hold from)  Kashtha (wood) apamsubhih (fluid of the wood).
Zikhi griven refers to neck of the peacock, which is bluish in color. Naturally occurring copper sulphate is in the color of the neck of the peacock.
kaSTha - wood, KaSTh apam - fluid of the wood.  Fluid of the wood is wood vinegar. Wood Vinegar is got from burning of the wood and liquefying the smoke of the charcoal.  Wood Vinegar primarily contains Acetic acid apart from other chemicals.
Jhardrar roughly means held from flowing away. I translate it as ‘dissolved’.  The copper sulphate is held from flowing away in the Kasthapam, which is the wood-vinegar. It is essentially dissolved in the wood vinegar.
KaSThapam is wood vinegar.
Thus it means
“Cover the vessel with Copper sulphate that is dissolved in the wood vinegar”
Dasta (zinc or Clay) loshto (clods or lumps)  Nidhatavyah (to be put down or deposited) Parada (to give up in the barter or exchange )  chhadita (cover/ disguise/conceal) STa (Copper)
The deposited zinc clods or lumps  exchange their cover for Copper.
Copper is referred to as dviSTa or dvyaSTa or tapaneSTa.
SaMyoga (conjunction/combination/direct material contact)  jjayte (is born)  Tejo (Splendor of)  Mitravaruna sangyitam (put togehter)
This direct material contact or conjunction is born with the splendor of putting together of Mitravaruna.
Anen (By this)  Jal bhagosti (the fluid is bestowed with)  Prano Daneshu Vayushu  (Prana rich Gas)
By this the water is bestowed with Prana rich gas
Evam (thus) Shatanam (thinning down or belling ) Kumbhanam (of the vessel) saMyog (combining) karya krit (work is done) smrita (is mentioned/defined).
Thus  thinning down the copper vessel,   doing conjunction work (electroplating) is mentioned/defined.
Summing it up
“Place Copper vessel inside a clay vessel. Fill it up with Copper sulphate dissolved in wood vinegar.  Place lumps of Zinc in it.  The zinc is covered with copper.  The bonding of Mitra-varuna is born. (meaning permanent, cannot be separated).  The water gets bestowed with Prana rich gas.  The Copper vessel thins down”

Important points to note here are the following:
  1. The electroplating described in the above sloka is exactly same as in the videos using copper sulphate and vinegar without electricity.
  2. I assume this kind of process should have been used in the past for long times and held as family secrets, passed on generation after generation.
  3. The copper coating achieved on the zinc clods is said to be the bonding of Mitra-varuna, which is not separable. This is the bonding electroplating achieves.
  4. Though the societies visualized Mitra and Varuna as some ‘devas’, that their bonding in inseparable was carried through always.
  5. The most important point here is about the ‘Prana rich gas’. Indeed the copper sulphate dissolved wood-vinegar (acetic acid) will become rich with Oxygen in this process.  How come people knew that the gas evolved is rich in Prana..? Actually the description of Prana gave me a doubt if it was written much much later during British times. But the talk of Mitra-Varuna bonding makes me think that it was indeed written in much ancient times. That also means sages of those times had an inkling that the gas that evolved in that process is the ‘Prana’.


I have not read the verses in Agastya Samhita in their orginal sanskrit source, though I have them. I have read them in several of the internet sources. I am not sure when these verses were written. I think they cannot be of recent origin given the understanding of the Mitra-Varuna bonding. They should be sufficiently old, passed on through generations and documented few hundred years before. 
Several renowned scholars whom I admire have interpreted these verses as example of a battery, which I don’t get to understand as I see it here. As I go deeper into various other slokas and improve my understanding, may be I will re-visit the verses of the samhita to check if I change my understanding.



  1. Unfortunately, our records were destroyed by invaders. Applications were destroyed. jsut because our education is by oral tansmission , we retained this much. Thanks to all rishis and Brhaimins who kept our knowledge intact.


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